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Modi China Agreement

In April 1954, India and the People`s Republic of China signed an eight-year agreement on Tibet, which became the five principles of peaceful coexistence (or Panchsheel). Experts said that while RCEP in its current form did not suit India, New Delhi can explore other options in Europe, America and Africa. Adil Zaidi, partner and director of the Economic Development Advisory at the consulting firm EY India, said: “India will have to leverage its strengths and negotiate trade agreements with existing consumer centres in America and Europe, as well as with emerging african countries. It is equally important to monitor imports of alternative routes under Asean, SAFTA and other free trade agreements. In his 25-minute statement of more than 2,000 minutes, Singh did not mention the five-point agreement in Moscow and did not stray from the previous official line that only China had flagrantly breached its obligations under the 1993, 1996 and subsequent agreements and that India was totally innocent. In 1995, discussions by the India-China Panel of Experts resulted in an agreement on the creation of two additional points of contact along the 4,000 km border to facilitate military-to-military meetings. Both sides were reportedly “seriously” concerned about the definition of the McMahon Line and the line of effective control of military exercises and the prevention of air penetration. Discussions were held in Beijing in July and New Delhi in August on improving border security, combating cross-border crime and further troop withdrawals. These discussions have further lowered tensions.

[52] The Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party, Mao Zedong, considered Tibet to be an integral part of the People`s Republic of China. The previous government of the Republic of China led by Chiang Kai-shek also claimed Tibet as Chinese territory, but was unable to regain control. President Mao saw India`s concern over Tibet as a manifestation of interference in the internal affairs of the People`s Republic of China. The People`s Republic of China reaffirmed control of Tibet and put an end to Tibetan Buddhism and feudalism, which it did by force of arms in 1950. To avoid an antagonization of the People`s Republic of China, Mr. Nehru informed the Chinese leadership that India had no political ambition or territorial ambition, that it did not wish to meet any special privileges in Tibet, but that traditional trade rights should be pursued. With India`s support, Tibetan delegates signed an agreement in May 1951 on the recognition of the sovereignty of the People`s Republic of China, but ensuring the sustainability of the existing Tibetan political and social system. The agreements cover a number of sectors, including renewable energy, the financial sector and ports. “The Chinese eruption shows how India has thwarted Beijing`s conception of invading the Indian market,” said a second official. “India will avoid adhering to agreements that are actually free trade agreements (FTA) that are secretly linked to countries like China,” said the official directly involved in trade issues. Ram Singh, a professor at the Delhi School of Economics (DSE), said India`s decision not to sign the RCEP agreement was “practical and prudent” with regard to economic and geopolitical circumstances.